The struggle for individuality and independence

Acttuthan JD The Indian freedom struggle has conventionally been associated with the organized nationalist movement of Satyagraha, non-violence and its major advocates-Gandhi, Nehru and Patel. This perception of the movement has lent to it a monochromatic and patriarchal nature.

The struggle for individuality and independence

Havel's Independence Day Address, Description Every political upheaval is followed by a "morning after.

The struggle for individuality and independence

In addition to celebrating the tremendous achievement of growing democracy in his newly-independent country, Havel also added a note of caution with his concern for the future of the country.

In particular, the reappearance of issues related to nationalism in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet imperium brings home the fact that the "Velvet Revolution" in Czechoslovakia did not necessarily lead to a "living happily ever after" ending for the common state of Czechs and Slovaks.

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The struggle for individuality and independence

Primary Source—Full Text My fellow citizens, Seventy-two years ago, at approximately this hour, the representatives of our nations, joined in the National Council, passed in Prague's Municipal Hall a law on the establishment of the Czechoslovak state. The first sentence of this, our first law, reads that "the independent Czechoslovak state has entered into life.

The years-long struggle of our resistance abroad, led by Masaryk, Stefanik and Benes, and the years-long struggle of many of our domestic leaders, was crowned with success on that day, when it was supported by the entire people through their public manifestations. From the ruins of the fallen Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and against the backdrop of its wartime defeat arose not only our modern independent state, but at the same time the first democratic state on our territory in all the long history of our nations.

The twenty-eighth of October is rightfully our foremost state holiday. Today this holiday has an especially festive air for us: For the first time after long decades we can again, without various evasions and perfectly unambiguously, acclaim the ideas with which this day is inseparably connected, namely the ideals of freedom, political plurality, genuine democracy, civic equality, social justice, humanity and, last but not least, complete state independence.

All this is certainly reason for heartfelt joy. It would be a dangerous self-deception, however, if we took today's anniversary only as a reason for joy.

It is not only that. For us it is at the same time a very serious summons to very serious reflection about ourselves. We live in a time which poses us innumerable disturbing questions. In the background lurks one fundamental one: Whether and how we will succeed in asserting the values in whose name we rose up against the totalitarian regime not quite a year ago, and whether and how we will realize the ideals we publicly articulated then.

I am afraid that we do not have many reasons for satisfaction. The social changes which seemed to us even a few months ago to be within reach are taking place slowly and with difficulty.

Disquiet, dissatisfaction, intolerance and disappointment, accompanied by increasing spitefulness, are growing among the people. We live in a stifling atmosphere.

We are gradually losing the credit which we gained abroad by our rapid and peaceful revolution. The outside world observes us with ever greater hesitation and ever more frequently expresses the fear that our ability to build a new system lags precariously behind the ability we demonstrated in the destruction of the old system.

I am convinced that everything will turn out alright in the end.

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At the same time, however, I presume that if everything does in fact turn out alright in the end, it will be only because we will find within ourselves the strength to look ourselves straight in the eyes, all our previous failures and all their genuine causes, including those which are rooted in ourselves alone and in our negative qualities.

It is not my task today to analyze all aspects of the critical situation in which we find ourselves. I shall mention only one subject which is immediately and meaningfully linked with the origin of our state.

Czechoslovakia arose seventy-two years ago out of the common will of our two nations, represented by their most significant spirits.

The most conscientious Czechs and Slovaks, whether they were active at home or abroad, agreed unanimously that the sole guarantee of independent state existence and free national development for us was a common life in one state. This generally shared certainty even led our forbears, both Czech and Slovak, to the conviction that our two nations were only two branches of a single nation.

In this case, as we know, they were fatefully mistaken, but all the same the simple fact that they thought thus testifies to how deep was their certainty that we belong to each other. As you are well aware, our common life in one state is undergoing a great test these days.

The freedom which we have won for ourselves places us quite legitimately in front of the question whether the decision of our ancestors was also free and whether it was correct. I am deeply convinced that it was the correct decision. At the same time, however, I am also deeply convinced that today we must remove from this decision its temporally-determined illusions and breathe into it new content.

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We are not a single Czechoslovak nation, but two nations, who have the right to the same measure of national individuality and sovereignty. We are at the same time a state with numerous national minorities, who also have their rights. One of these rights is the right to be a fully-fledged citizen of our federal state.

We want to give a new content and new life to the decision of our ancestors by attempting to give a new content to the federal organization of our state.

We say that we are building an authentic federation. It is an unusually complicated and demanding process, accompanied by innumerable quarrels, failures to reach understanding, surprises, and even disappointments. If I were to compare this process to giving birth, then I would have to say that it is definitely not a painless childbirth.

What is necessary for this to be a successful birth, so that a truly healthy and viable baby will be born? In my opinion there is only one thing necessary:Catalonia’s Struggle For Independence from Spain. An upcoming independence referendum – if officially authorised to go ahead – would instigate both political and social change within Catalonia.

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Personally, I strive for individuality if you exclude wildlife as being 'others'. Consequently, in order to strive and achieve 'great' things you must do things that helps others (even investing, in .

In "Self-Reliance," philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson argues that polite society has an adverse effect on one's personal growth. Self-sufficiency, he writes, gives one the freedom to discover one's.

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The importance of the date is marked by the traditions and the ways of celebration.

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