A westward expansion from the civilizations of western Asia and Egypt began about bc and led to settlements in Crete, the Cyclades, and mainland Greece. The fundamental difference between these and the earlier, Neolithic cultures is that stone tools and weapons were replaced by those made of copper and, later, bronze.
The Northern Renaissance c. Introduction There are several reasons why the Renaissance came later to Northern Europe.
First, it was further removed from the centers of trade and culture in the Mediterranean. As a result, towns, trade, and the more progressive ideas that tend to come with wealth developed more slowly in the north. Along these lines, the greater influence of feudalism and the Church kept the political, social, and intellectual institutions much more medieval and backward.
This in turn provided more resistance to the humanistic ideas developing in Italy. However, the revival of towns and trade in the North combined with other factors in three ways to bring the Renaissance to Northern Europe.
First of all, the urban revival in the North along with the Portuguese and Spanish overseas colonies created the financial resources needed to patronize the arts.
Secondly, growing trade in the North, combined with the French invasion of Italy in and the ability of the printing press to spread ideas quickly and accurately, led to growing contact with the ideas of the Italian Renaissance.
Finally, the rise of towns together with the rising national monarchies in France, England, Spain, and Portugal led to the decline of the feudal nobility and medieval Church.
This created less resistance to the new ideas from the Renaissance. All these factors came together to produce the Northern Renaissance c. The Northern Renaissance should not be seen as a mere copycat of the Italian Renaissance. There were two major differences between the two cultural movements in Italy and the North.
First of all, the Church's influence, despite being shaken by recent corruption and scandals, still was strong enough to make the Northern Renaissance more religious in nature. Second, the rising power of the national monarchies made the Northern Renaissance more nationalistic in character.
Reconciling religion and the Renaissance The more intense religious feelings prevailing in Northern Europe posed a difficult question: The answer humanists came up with was yes.
This was largely thanks to the greatest humanist of the age: Erasmus of Rotterdam Called the "Prince of Humanists" and the "scholar of Europe", Erasmus dominated Northern Europe's culture in a way few, if any, other scholars have before or since his time.
So great was his reputation that kings and princes from all over Europe competed for his services at their courts.
Erasmus popularized classical civilization with his Adages, a collection of ancient proverbs with his own commentaries. His Praise of Folly satirized the follies and vices of the day, in particular those of the Church, while further popularizing humanism.
Erasmus was still a pious Christian who pushed the idea that it was one's inner spirit, not outward shows of piety through empty rituals, that really mattered. However, he saw no contradictions between Christianity and ancient cultures.
He underscored this attitude by referring to the ancient Greek philosopher, Socrates, as "Saint Socrates".Italian Renaissance Sculpture (c) The Italian Renaissance was inspired by the "rediscovery" of, and reverence for, the arts of Classical Antiquity, especially in the field of architecture and sculpture.
Renaissance art was also coloured by a strong belief in Humanism and the nobility of Man. It began in Florence, being inspired by . Renaissance. Along with your descriptions, include answers to the following questions: • What are the social and cultural similarities between the Italian and Northern European Renaissance?
• What are the social and cultural differences between the Italian and Northern European Renaissance?
• What are the relationships between the arts and the cultures of the Italian Renaissance and the. Hellenistic Monarchs down to the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic Age suffers from some of the same disabilities as Late Antiquity, i.e.
it doesn't measure up to the brilliance of the Golden Age of Greece and of late Republican and early Imperial Rome.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, film, video games, different types of music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to . I read this book in conjunction with an online Art History class covering the Northern Renaissance offered through Oxford University's continuing education program. -the relationships between the arts and the cultures of the Italian Renaissance and the Northern European Renaissance -the social and cultural differences reflected in the arts?
Use at least two specific artistic examples to illustrate your points.