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The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate HR and energy expenditure EE and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework.
Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling. Devices reported the lowest error for cycling and the highest for walking.
Device error was higher for males, greater body mass index, darker skin tone, and walking. No device achieved an error in EE below 20 percent. In conclusion, most wrist-worn devices adequately measure HR in laboratory-based activities, but poorly estimate EE, suggesting caution in the use of EE measurements as part of health improvement programs.
We propose reference standards for the validation of consumer health devices http: Introduction Coronary heart disease is responsible for one in every four deaths in the United States.
Few interventions are as effective as physical activity in reducing the risk of death yet, we have achieved limited success in programs designed to help individuals exercise more.
In weight loss studies, clear benefit derives from simple documentation of caloric intake, [ 1 ] but data are less clear on the benefit of documenting exercise time and calorie expenditure on health.
Microelectromechanical systems such as accelerometers and Light Emitting Diode LED -based physiological monitoring have been available for decades [ 234567 ].
More recent improvements in battery longevity and miniaturization of the processing hardware to turn raw signals in real time into interpretable data led to the commercial development of wrist-worn devices for physiological monitoring.
Such devices can provide data directly back to the owner and place estimates of heart rate HR and energy expenditure EE within a consumer model of health and fitness. Unlike clinically approved devices, however, validation studies are not available to practitioners whose patients commonly present acquired data in the hope that it may enhance their clinical care.
Indeed, certain health care systems have developed processes to bring such data directly into the medical record [ 8910 ]. Thus, validation data on new devices and a forum for the ready dissemination of such data are urgent requirements.
Prior studies of wrist-worn devices have focused on earlier stage devices, or have focused exclusively on HR or estimation of EE. Some have made comparisons among devices without reference to the U.
None proposed an error model or framework for device validation. In response to this need, we formulated an approach to the public dissemination of validation data for consumer devices http: We present here the first data from this study, derived from laboratory testing of consumer wrist-worn devices from the most commercially successful manufacturers.May When people care enough about something to do it well, those who do it best tend to be far better than everyone else.
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Strategies from a noted educational consultant on how to ease the pressure, ace the essay, and gain admission into your top-choice school Getting into college has become fiercely competitive. The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine.
However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework.
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COMPANY BACKGROUND Apple INC, was founded on April 1, in a garage by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne. Case Study: Apple Inc. Words | 9 Pages. Background This paper presents a case study of Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is a technology based corporation with emphasis on computer software and hardware (MAC and Apps), tablets (IPad), smart phones (IPhone), and mp3 plays, (ITouch).